FM (FM ). COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS. IN URBAN TERRAIN. HEADQUARTERS. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. DISTRIBUTION. FM Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain. Topics: urban, enemy, fire, 8 Favorites. DOWNLOAD OPTIONS. download 1 file. FM - COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN. by: US DOD. Topics: guerilla DOWNLOAD OPTIONS. download 1 file.
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FM (ARMY FIELD MANUAL), COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN (28 FEB ) [SUPERSEDES FM ]., Worldwide urban. Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain (ATTP / FM ) [ Department of the Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. Pages·· MB·3 Downloads. or humanitarian concerns require the control of an urban area or The full spectrum of UO will affect how units.
Use of a loophole with a machine gun Vehicle fighting positions Sample positions for Infantry riding on a tank Danger areas around a tank firing a mm main gun Moving with Infantry Village between a river and a highway A-2 Figure A Urban zones A-3 Figure A Strip area in farmland A-5 Figure A Strip area near river Distribution of building types A Figure A ERG hazard identification codes ERG placard examples Extract from ERG Guide A Figure B M72A7 backblast area B Figure B M AT4 backblast area Vertical firing angle Horizontal firing angle Bunker defeat munition backblast surface danger zones B 10 June ix Contents Figure B TOW missile backblast in an open street Dead space at street level Dead space above street level Mobile gun system dead space at street level Danger areas around a mobile gun system firing a mm main gun BFV street level dead space BFV above street dead space Sabot petal danger area Danger zone High-angle and low-angle trajectories B Tables Table Maneuver battalions within brigade combat teams Headquarters and headquarters company combat units Maneuver companies Reconnaissance troops, weapons company, and antitank company Sample variances of cordon and search methods Example verbal commands Vehicle size and weight classification Descriptions and population sizes of inhabited areas A-1 Table A Urban street patterns and effects A Table A Location and types of toxic industrial material A Table B Employment of hand grenades and ground smoke signals B-6 Table B B-7 Table B Shoulder-launched munition effects on heavy armored vehicles B-8 Table B Shoulder-launched munition effects on light armored vehicles Shoulder-launched munition effects on nonarmored vehicles B-9 Table B M and Mseries munitions effects on field fortifications or bunkers M bunker munitions effects on field fortifications or bunkers B Table B Effective ranges of the mobile gun system weapons systems Number of HEI-T rounds needed to create different size holes in brick or concrete B ATTP The continued trend worldwide of urban growth and the shift of populations from rural to urban areas continues to affect Army operations.
The urban environment, consisting of complex terrain, dense populations, and integrated infrastructures, is the predominant operational environment in which Army forces currently operate.
Each urban environment is unique and differs because of the combinations presented by the enemy, the urban area itself, the major operation of which it may be part or the focus , and always changing societal and geopolitical considerations. Enemy forces will take advantage of this complex environment by intermingling with the populace.
ATTP Stability operations are briefly discussed in the context of transition considerations. Stability operations are inherently among the people and generally in urban environments.
FM This material is not repeated in ATTP The proponent for this publication is the U. The preparing agency is the U. You may send comments and recommendations by any meansU.
E-mail: Phone: Fax: U. Mail: Benn. Unless otherwise stated in this publication, masculine nouns and pronouns refer to both men and women. The unified action environment of UO enables and enhances the capabilities of the BCT to plan, prepare, and execute offensive, defensive, and stability operations.
Urban operations are Infantry-centric combined arms operations that capitalize on the adaptive and innovative leaders at the squad, platoon, and company level. Combined arms is the synchronized and simultaneous application of the elements of combat power to achieve an effect greater than if each element of combat power was used separately or sequentially.
The eight elements of combat power are leadership, information, movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, mission command, and protection.
Leadership and information are applied through, and multiply the effects of, the other six elements of combat power. These sixmovement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, mission command, and protectionare collectively described as the warfighting functions. See FM for details. The BCT is the Armys largest fixed combined arms organization and the primary close combat force. A key component in UO is the inherent ability of the BCT to tailor its force to meet the requirements of the urban environment.
This introduction provides an overview of UO considerations that shape the subsequent discussions of operations at BCT and below. JP identifies three distinguishing characteristics of the urban environmentphysical terrain, population, and infrastructure.
FM identifies three key overlapping and interdependent components of the urban environment: terrain natural and man-made , society, and the supporting infrastructure.
The following urban-related terms are critical to understanding this manual. All discuss some aspect of the physical terrain, man-made structures, or the population.
To ensure clarity, their definitions follow: Terrain. Urban terrain is a complex man-made physical terrain superimposed on existing natural terrain. This physical terrain consists of man-made structures of varying types, sizes, materials, and construction arranged sometimes in an orderly manner and sometimes randomly. It may be modern or built around an ancient core; it may contain towering buildings or none over three stories.
See JP for details. The urban area is a topographical complex where man-made construction or high population density is the dominant feature.
The urban environment is the physical urban area as well as the complex and dynamic interaction among its key componentsthe terrain natural and man-made , the population, and the supporting infrastructureas an overlapping and interdependent system of systems.
The urban population is of significant size and density inhabiting, works in, and uses the man-made and natural terrain. Urban areas are frequently defined according to size, from villages of fewer than 3, inhabitants to large cities with populations of over , Large cities vary greatly in size, ranging in population from , to over 20,, and in area from several to hundreds of square miles. Urban infrastructure is upon which the area depends that occupies man-made terrain and provides human services and cultural and political structure for the urban area and often beyond, perhaps for the entire nation.
An urban area may have a significant influence beyond a citys boundaries. It may influence a region within the nation, the nation itself, or other countries within a geographical region.
For full spectrum UO, all groupings of man-made structures and densities of populationespecially if the population is the hub of political, economic, and cultural activity of the surrounding areaare militarily significant. Any populated place, even those too small to be classified as urban areas minimum population of 2, , can affect operations.
The size or density of a population is not the determining factor of whether an area is urban terrain. It is the size or density of the man-made structures that makes an area urban terrain.
Therefore, an uninhabited industrial complex; a large, dense homestead; or a well-developed settlement or village may be urban terrain even though they do not fit the definition of an urban area. TERRAIN Urban terrain, both natural and man-made, is the foundation upon which the population and infrastructure of the urban area are superimposed.
The physical environment includes the geography and man-made structures in the area of operations AO. A city may consist of a core surrounded by various commercial ribbons, industrial areas, outlying high-rise areas, residential areas, shantytowns, military areas, extensive parklands or other open areas, waterways, and transportation infrastructure. City patterns may consist of a central hub surrounded by satellite areas, or they may be linear, networked, or segmented.
They may contain street patterns that are rectangular, radial, concentric, irregular, or a combination of patterns. See appendix A for details. They may be closely packed where land space is at a premium or dispersed over several square miles. The infinite ways in which these features may be combined make it necessary to approach each urban area as a unique problem.
The natural terrain features that lay beneath urban cities also influence UO. They dictate where buildings can be constructed and how streets align and, thus, influence schemes of maneuver. In addition, the slopes of roads are included in the overall terrain analysis of a city since they often follow the underlying terrains natural contours. Understanding the physical characteristics of urban terrain requires a multidimensional approach. Commanders operating in unrestricted terrain normally address their AO in terms of air and ground.
However, operations within the urban environment provide numerous man-made structures and variables not found in unrestricted terrain. Commanders conducting UO must broaden the scope of their thinking. The total size of the surfaces and spaces of an urban area is usually many times that of a similarly size piece of natural terrain because of the complex blend of horizontal, vertical, interior, exterior, and subterranean forms superimposed on the natural landscape.
Introduction figure-1 illustrates the types of physical characteristics found in urban terrain.
The following terms are provided as they relate to UO. Airspace is the area above the ground usable by aircraft and aerial munitions. In urban areas, airspace is broken up by man-made structures of different heights and densities and the irregularities of natural terrain. This produces an urban canyon effect that can adversely impact operations. Urban canyons often cause higher wind speeds with unpredictable wind direction and turbulence that can cause some munitions to miss their targets increasing risk for both collateral damage and fratricide and that significantly increase risks for rotary-wing operations near the surface.
Surface areas include exterior ground-level areas of streets and roads, parks and fields, and any other exterior space. For purposes of analysis, the ground floor of buildings and the surface of waterways are also part of the surface dimension. These surface areas follow the natural terrain and are broken up by man-made features.
Supersurface Areas. Supersurface areas are the roofs and upper floors of buildings, stadiums, towers, or other structures. These areas also include the internal floors or levels intrasurface.
Subsurface areas are below ground level that consist of sewer and drainage systems, subway tunnels, utility corridors, or other subterranean spaces.
Stability operations are inherently among the people and generally in urban environments. FM This material is not repeated in ATTP The proponent for this publication is the U. The preparing agency is the U. Urban operations are among the most difficult and challenging missions a BCT can undertake. The unified action environment of UO enables and enhances the capabilities of the BCT to plan, prepare, and execute offensive, defensive, and stability operations.
Urban operations are Infantry-centric combined arms operations that capitalize on the adaptive and innovative leaders at the squad, platoon, and company level. Combined arms is the synchronized and simultaneous application of the elements of combat power to achieve an effect greater than if each element of combat power was used separately or sequentially. The eight elements of combat power are leadership, information, movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, mission command, and protection.
Leadership and information are applied through, and multiply the effects of, the other six elements of combat power.