The traditional discipline of Mass Communication now stands challenged by the rapid integration of telecommunications, computing, broadcasting and other. in colonial India, (b) in the first decades after independence and (c) and finally in the context of globalisation. Third, mass communication is. Foxit Advanced PDF Editor Second unit of the book discuss the various models of mass communications Mass Communication in India Keval J Kumar. 3.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
in the area of mass communication or for most people in the mass media. We enjoy all . When India became independent agriculture in the country was not. Journalism and Mass Communication is published monthly in print (ISSN ) . ☆Daivata Deepak Patil (University of Mumbai, India);. PDF | Rashmi Luthra and others published JOURNALISM AND MASS Journalism and mass communication are part and parcel of the . India, for example, the producers geared the use of camera techniques, sound and.
Books rate as an important mass medium because of the credibility factor. Books are credible because of their association with formal education and because they are durable and long lasting. Some books, which were printed several hundred years age, are still in existence. History of Books- History of books dates back to the time when there was no paper and no printing press.
Books in those early days were mostly made of thin sheets of barks from trees or palm leaf, etc. Around BC, the Egyptians discovered a method of making paper from Papyrus. This made writing much easier with the help of brush and ink. The next big step came in the middle part of the 15th century. In , Johann Guttenberg invented the printing press and was the first person to print a book using mechanical printing process.
This book was 11 the 42 -line Mazarin Bible and was published in This marked the beginning of the era of Mass communication. Growth and development in book publishing some what stagnated in the first half of the 20th century. The reasons being the two World Wars and the stock market crash. The period immediately after World War II saw the emergence of many publication houses bringing out pocket books. These included Penguin Books, Avon Books, etc.
Books sold to general consumers through bookshops are called trade books. Paperbacks are sold through both bookstores and newsstands. Textbooks are for the elementary, high school and college students. Professional or scholarly books are meant for university students and experts. Which book did Johann Guttenberg print and in which year?
By , Marconi succeeded in creating a wireless communication link between Europe and North America. These developments paved the way for the first ever broadcast that took place on Christmas Eve, in in USA. Later it took ten years of hard work to perfect the radio. Radio established its place very fast in the minds of listeners.
Heavy doses of infotainment including music, drama, talk shows, etc supplemented with news made radio popular overnight. Radio broadcasting was introduced in India by amateur radio clubs in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Lahore, though even before the clubs launched their ventures, several experimental broadcasts were conducted in Bombay. Spoken word programmes, which include news bulletins, talks, discussions, interviews, educational programmes for schools and colleges, specific audience programmes directed at women, children, rural and urban listeners, drama, radio features and documentaries.
Music programmes, which include disc jockey programmes, musical performances of all types and variety programmes. Strength of the Radio 1. Radio reaches messages to illiterates, neo-literates and highly educated receivers simultaneously. It is a fairly affordable to be owed by everyone. The want of visual effect is compensated by sound effects, both natural and mechanical and so live effect is moderately high.
The quality of voice and sound makes the communication fairly enjoyable. Musical sound effect enlivens the communication and often breaks monotony. It has the capacity to deliver instantaneous messages. Radio does not require captivity. Listeners can receive messages even when they are working. Farmer may listen to farm programmes while working in fields, a busy executive may listen to news bulletin even while driving or a housewife may listen to her favorite programme even while working in the kitchen.
Radio does not require power line for operation and so people in remote villages devoid of power lines can also receive messages from this medium. Once a transistor radio is downloadd, messages flow constantly and no cost is involved for reception of messages. Weakness of the Radio 1. Communication through radio lacks visual component and so does not demonstrate but suggests. Spoken messages are subject to interpretation of listeners according to their imagination, experience and predisposition; hence possibility of misinterpretation is very high.
Listeners need lot of imagination and therefore understanding of message depends largely on the characteristics of the receivers.
Communication is time limited and presents tiny fragments of topics in a haphazard mosaic. The medium has also limitations because of its audio nature. Receivers cannot put off listening parts of message for subsequent listening at their convenience. It is not easy to predict the future of radio. Technologically, radio transmission will improve greatly. FM will continue to grow faster and bigger.
The information provided pertains to current events, trends, issues, and people. Alternative Journalism deals more with objective reporting. It deviates from traditional and accepted sorts of media in ways of content, manufacture, and supply. Alternative Journalism conveys many structures of audio, internet, print, radio, etc. In addition to this, Alternative Journalism alludes to several methods of web-based sources of analytical news and radical news in the form of online news or a blog.
The media tries in making sure to notify the public as much as possible while also making sure to absorb and engross the Public, making a full effort to attract the public.
Citizen Journalism is a notion among public citizens playing their significant roles in circulating information in news. All there is to citizen journalism is that is deals with the distributing of news by affiliates of the public utilizing the internet to proliferate that information in news. Public relations differs from advertising in that it is less obtrusive, and aimed at providing a more comprehensive opinion to a large audience in order to shape public opinion.
Unlike advertising, public relations professionals only have control until the message is related to media gatekeepers who decide where to pass the information on to the audience. The use and importance of social media in communications and public relations has grown drastically throughout the years and is now a staple in advertisements to mass audiences.
For many newer companies and businesses geared towards young people social media is a tool for advertising purposes and growing the brand. Social Media provides additional ways to connect and reach out to ones targeted audience.
Even though the first social networking sites were created several years ago, the rise of both MySpace and Facebook took over and cancelled out the previous social media sites. Facebook has the ability for people to view your personal life with you posting picture, videos and updating your status. As of today Facebook is one of the most popular social media websites for multiple types of communication.
Generally Facebook is used for communication with relatives and friends along with people who share interests. One way this has occurred is through catfishing. The term catfish refers to a person who uses a false online profile on a social media platform.
Most commonly, a catfish communicates with another online profile to get them to fall in love with the false persona they created. As catfishing has become a mainstream term, people have wondered how and why it continues to happen.
Nev Schulman , host of the show, has said "I think people will always be looking to fall in love. People will always hope for things to get better. For better, or worse, there will always be people who may or may not look to take advantage of that. The invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in the late 19th century, the graphophone by Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Tainter, and the gramophone by The Victor Talking Machine Company were the first competing mass media forms that brought recorded music to the masses.
The wider range of critical issues of the credibility and public interest along with accuracy, fairness, integrity, transparency, responsibility are at the core of the ethical debate.
Imbibing of stereotypes, depiction of violence, sex, vulgarity and influencing the mass psychology in a specific direction are causes for concern. The oppressive structures use transmission and ritual Language in India www.
But mostly the ritual communication has been used in media to reinforce and glorify the oppression.
Advertising is meant for selling products by using persuasive and emphatic use of language with crispy catchy and easy lines. But, in structural oppression approach, the line between the advertisements and the news is blurred.
Media creates a mirage through news, advertisements and pursues conversion of readers into consumers. Introduction The language is use of words in a structured and conventional way to communicate using conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings.
Communication with the use of language or any other means is nothing but conversation where message sender and receiver are involved in the process. In traditional newspapers, the letters to editor was the only space for the bidirectional communication. Otherwise it was one way communication directed by media to its readers. With new media providing more space for people to communicate with the messenger, the print media had to pave the way for conversation by introducing e-papers, websites, blogs, etc.
The concepts like citizen journalists have already taken roots with some of the newspapers bringing out special supplements to publish stories by readers. The role of media has been a subject of considerable speculation in recent times. Communication scholars are divided on the role of media communication. There are some who consider communication as precondition and premise for the human development while there are others who state that media and communication are just facilitators in the development process.
The fact remains that media and communication can hardly bring radical change on the ground.
Actual ground action is required for any sustainable change and media communication can facilitate the change. In a country like India, print still holds the fort in the era of new media. This research paper tries to understand the print media language with focus on newspapers in the backdrop of the incessant oppression and exploitation.
The mass media institutions have become one of the tools sutra in the hands of oppressors functioning within the structure of oppression and exploitation.
The Newspapers The information provided in this section is a summary from a variety of sources including the following: Continental Prakashan, 2nd edition Language in India www. The daily events in the life of Romans were collected by reporters known as actuarii , officially appointed by the state. These reports were displayed on a board. The pieces of news displayed on the board were kept as archives. War news, senate discussions, political developments, important events in Rome were displayed on the board.
Acta Diurna were the initial form of daily news papers. In the 8th century, the first newspaper appeared as hand-written newssheets in Beijing. In Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press. Newsletters were published during this period which gave information about trade and business developments.
Also manuscript newssheets were started in Germany by the late 15th century. In the Venetian government published Notizie scritte. In the 17th century more newspapers were started in Western countries. These newspapers were focused on the developments in European nations.
However, the invention of the telegraph in brought a revolution in the communication sector and it became possible to transfer the information within a few minutes. This was the harbinger of the new changing technology in the communication, especially the mass communication.
Meanwhile non-European nations entered the newspaper publication. The first language printing press with vernacular types was established in at Vaipicotta. In William Bolts attempted to start a newspaper in India. The first issue appeared on January 29, Bengal Gazette was the first Indian owned English daily launched by Raja Rammohun Roy in and since then the print media in India has dominated the media scene.
With the emergence of new age electronic media, questions are being raised on the survival of the print media across the world. In developed countries where internet has become part and parcel of life and digital media has penetrated every household there is decline in the print circulation. Printed newspapers and magazines were forced to change their forms and content to compete with the new age media. Shailsh Dabhol, Available from http: Growth was faster in urban India 3.
The survey with a sample of over 3,11, literate youth 1,02, rural and 2,09, urban covering villages in districts as rural and urban blocks in towns as urban helps to understand the media consumption, reading habits and preferences of literate Indian youth. But in terms of preferred media for news and current affairs around two-thirds In fact radio, with Radio, with a listener audience of 71 million youth, also punches above magazines 52 million and Internet 12 million.
The total number of registered newspapers, as on 31st March, was 69, The number of new newspapers registered during was 4, while percentage of growth of total registered publications over the previous year is 6. The largest number of newspapers and periodicals registered in any Indian language are in Hindi 27, while the second largest number of newspapers and periodicals registered in any language are in English 10, The state with the largest number of registered newspapers is Uttar Pradesh 10, while the state with the second largest number of registered newspapers is Delhi 9, The largest circulated daily is The Hindu, English, Chennai with a circulation of 12,75, The second largest circulated daily is Ananda Bazar Patrika, Bengali, Kolkata with a circulation of 12,55, The largest circulated multi-edition Daily is The Times of India, English 5 editions with a circulation of 23,35, The Journalists and masses are from the same country, but different classes.
The language is same but its color, culture, content, parole and pronunciations are different. There is no newspaper to cater to the needs of new English learners which speaks their language. In a tiny Bankagaon village in Uttar Pradesh near Lakhimpur Khiri, Dalits took a oath on April 30, to learn English and decided to worship the language as goddess.
Babasaheb Ambedkar. Even in government schools the number of parents who want to educate their kids in English language is on the rise.
However, English media is far away from these new entrants of the language. Same is applied to the regional media. For example language spoken by about 80 per cent of people in Maharashtra is not found in newspapers, radio or television. The basic function of language is communication and if it could communicate effectively the grammar and rules of language should not be a barrier.
Assumed and Presumed Objectivity — Excluding and Ignoring Sections of Audience Objectivity is preached in journalism, but hardly there is any objective reporting. Unfortunately in country like India one has to carry the tag of caste and religion and journalists are no exception. While dealing with the stories journalists are not just journalists but they are carriers of the cultural system they represent. It is impossible for the journalist to keep all this aside and be an objective reporter while reporting.
The general norm of objectivity in journalism thus remains restricted to the representation of all sides in the story by adding quotes of the all parties involved. But the basic scope of the news, especially in the elite English media, is limited to the urban and elite class and it is reflected in rhetorical tropes and other semiotics of the news. The new learner of the language will not understand the eponym until he reads Robinson Crusoe -- a novel by Daniel Defoe that was first published in The Transition of Language Did Not Change the approach and Attitude The metaphors, allegories, social and ideological codes are drawn from colonial legacy and Unites States of America addiction.
It is not only the language but also the subjects come from similar vibes. Thousands of poor women who became leaders of villages as sarpanch and who made a radical difference hardly find space in newspapers. The transition of language did not change the approach and attitude. An illiterate farmer experimenting with drip irrigation to save water to reap crop hardly becomes a hero on newspaper pages. In the middle of false icons and artificial heroes the real ones hardly get their space in media.
Class of few still dominates the scene, only the tools with which they dominate have changed and media is the best example in India. The criteria, definitions and parameters are still defined and decided by a few dominant while others either try to get fit in the decided framework or innovate their way to break suffocation. Need to Shift Paradigm Focus and Theories There is need to shift paradigm focus and theories should be re-organised.
Efforts of common people who are trying to change their lives should reflect in mass media. Deprived and marginal communities are not represented as they should be in the main stream media. The representation of the Dalits, Advasis, minorities and marginal communities is meagre. Their contribution to socio-economic and cultural development is either neglected or ignored and their coverage is tinged with bias.
The media and its makers play a role of facilitator to maintain the oppressive structure.
The Sutra Theory of Oppression and Exploitation — Graded Inequality Oppression is prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or exercise of authority, while exploitation is the action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work. Oppression is not isolated or temporary scenario but it is continuous and evolving process. Structure of oppression exploits oppressed and reaps benefits of the structural system.
The castes and classes in India have always enjoyed the power they derived from socio-religious- economic-political oppressive structures. With this power they oppressed and exploited those deprived of power. This graded inequality has found new faces and forms in the new world order. The powerful oppressors toil to maintain the oppressive structure and any challenge to oppression and exploitation is challenge to this oppressive power structure. World has witnessed many struggles between oppressors exploiters and oppressed exploited.
Since the human existence the oppressive power structures have played a role in human relations. These structures remain same through ages, operating overtly and covertly with changing forms. A sutra of oppression and exploitation runs common in world civilizations.
The literal meaning of sutra is thread or lineage that holds things together. The oppression and exploitation and their manifestation have found new forms and faces through ages which have also witnessed the struggle against oppression and exploitation.
The social life is based on the discriminative varna dharma system which impedes individual from empowerment an self development.
The economic life again revolves round the varna dharma which gives exclusive rights of holding property and economic prosperity to upper varnas. The discriminatory religious structure deprives a huge chunk of people of the basic human rights in the name of varna and caste system.
The Indian history is full of struggles against this oppressive and exploitative structure. B R Ambedkar hundreds of revolutionaries challenged the oppression and exploitation in various forms and ways.
The Indian freedom struggle and majority of its proponents raised revolt against the oppressive and exploitative British Raj, but failed to find the antidote to the oppressive and exploitative structure within Indian society.
In fact, for thousands of deprived in India, the freedom struggle and its outcome was just replacement of the oppressors exploiters as the sutra of oppression and exploitation continues with new Indian sutradhars carrier of sutra. The structural sutra of oppression runs diagonal, it spreads, trickles down and flourishes to exploit the lowest in hierarchy.
Male-dominated Patriarchal System The sutra of oppression could be traced in male-dominated patriarchal system which replaced the matriarchal system.
The oppressor system derives power by exploiting powerless deprived from acquiring power. The answer to underdevelopment and poverty should be traced in the oppressive and exploitative structures. Finding answers to oppression and exploitation will lead to the path of development. The human life strives for development. To develop is to use full human potential for betterment of life.
To develop is to enjoy the equal benefits of social, economic, religious and political power.